By Elliott Nesch
Holy Bible Prophecy
Once again, Bono’s hip and cool Christianity has deceived many in recent days, from Focus on the Family to World Net Daily. Joe Kovacs’ article entitled “U2′s Bono: Yes, Jesus is the Son of God,” presents quotes from Bono and U2 band members over the years affirming their Christian faith. For instance, Bono is quoted, “I believe that Jesus was, you know, the Son of God.”1
Jim Daly, president of Focus on the Family, hosted an aired conversation with Bono.2 He followed up the interview with an article entitled, “Why Orthodox Christians Should Appreciate an Unorthodox Bono,” in which he defends Bono’s “very real Christian faith.” Daly says, “Bono may at times be a bit unorthodox in his approach, but he is quite orthodox in the areas that matter most–loving God and loving people.”3 Daly incorporated statistics on how Bono’s efforts are changing the world from a humanitarian standpoint.
Sadly, many Christians are being deceived by Bono’s Christianity. Philanthropy is no substitute for the Gospel of Jesus Christ! Christians should minister medical help to the sick, give to the poor, and educate the uneducated. But this is no substitute for the Gospel. Jesus said, “And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature. He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned” (Mark 16:15,16). How many of those who have been saved from extreme poverty through Bono’s ONE Campaign are now saved from their sins through the same effort? Can social justice, debt relief, and elimination of the AIDS epidemic bring glory to God when it is completely unconnected to the preaching of the Gospel of Jesus Christ?
Daly says orthodox Christians should appreciate an unorthodox Bono. This irrational and anti-doctrinal stance resonates with popular phrases like “deeds, not creeds”, “head knowledge vs. heart knowledge,” and “plurality of truth.” Paul the Apostle did not make concessions for false doctrine but exhorted Timothy, “Preach the word; be instant in season, out of season; reprove, rebuke, exhort with all longsuffering and doctrine” (2 Timothy 4:3). Daly had a perfect opportunity to do just that on his Focus on the Family interview with Bono. “The time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine; but after their own lusts shall they heap to themselves teachers, having itching ears; and they shall turn away their ears from the truth, and shall be turned unto fables” (2 Timothy 4:3-4).
Bono on Family Values
Ironically, Bono, though a guest on Focus on the Family, holds to many ideas destructive to the family unit such as his support of homosexuality and abortion. Bono stated, “My bottom line on any sexuality is that love is the most important thing. That love is it. Any way people want to love each other is OK by me. That’s different from abuse, be it homosexual or heterosexual.”4 When asked, “How do you feel, for instance, about abortion?” Bono responded, “I just have my own ideas. I believe that it’s a woman’s right to choose. Absolutely.”5
While Daly exalted Bono as a strong family man, Fox News reports with photographic evidence on how Bono was busted partying with teenage girls. The article says:
The curse of Facebook has now hit U2 lead singer Bono. . . Pictures of the 48-year-old rocker with his arm around two bikini-clad teenagers in St Tropez were posted on the popular social site complete with diary details. Bono was on vacation with long-time friend Simon Carmody, a musician and former member of Irish band Golden Horde. The Irishmen met up with two 19-year-olds, American fashion student Andrea Feick and her British friend Hannah Emerson. . .
The images show Bono wearing his trademark hat and sunglasses while drinking with the two girls at the Nikki Beach bar in St Tropez. Later that evening, they took a stroll along the beach, then made their way to a luxury yacht, thought to be the Cyan, a $12 million, 140ft yacht with six cabins owned by U2 guitarist The Edge. Bono, Carmody and the girls partied into the night on the yacht. Bono’s 26-year marriage to wife Ali is famously strong.6
Almost always, Bono violates all taboos in his public speeches with profane language. Appearing on the Golden Globe Awards broadcast live in 2003, Bono shouted the f-word. The incident was investigated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), which declared Bono’s language “profane” but decided not to fine the stations.7
Bono on Fundamentalists
When Bono was asked if he believed that Jesus is the way, and if that biblical injunction denied that followers of other religions could enter paradise, he answered:
I don’t accept that. I don’t accept that fundamentalist concept. I believe, what is it? “The way is narrow as the eye of the needle,” and all that. But I think that’s just to keep the fundamentalists out. . . . (laughs)
I never really accepted the whole “born again” tag.8
On the contrary, Bono is ecumenical in his promoting of the three “Abrahamic faiths.” On U2′s 2005 Vertigo tour, Bono sought to bridge all faiths into a global religion. The word “COEXIST” appeared on a giant screen—the “C” in the symbol of the Islamic crescent, the “X” as the Jewish star of David, and “T” as the Christian cross. Bono led their fans in a chant singing, “Jesus, Jew, Mohammed—It’s True.”9
As for the apostate Roman Catholic Church, Bono jovially said, “Everyone knows God is a Catholic, right?”10 Furthermore, Bono said:
Let’s not get too hard on the Holy Roman Church here. The Church has its problems, but the older I get, the more comfort I find there … murmuring prayers, stories told in stained-glass windows, the colors of Catholicism–purple mauve, yellow, red–the burning incense. My friend Gavin Friday says Catholicism is the glam-rock of religion.11
Bono on Grace
In an interview with the band Oasis, member Noel Gallagher recalls a three-hour conversation with Bono about God:
[B]efore going to see U2 in Manchester recently, me and me girlfriend were saying, “I wonder what it is with Bono and God?” Anyway, we’re sat round a table after the gig and I go, “Explain it to me ’cause I was brought up Catholic and it means f*** all to me.” We had a good three-hour conversation about his religious philosophy, which is basically, “Go to God, tell him what all your flaws are and say, ‘Can you work with me?’” Which is completely different to the “Don’t drink, don’t screw, don’t take drugs and always go to church” bollocks you get taught at school.12
Granted, Noel Gallagher is a secondary source of Bono’s views on God’s grace. However, in another interview, Bono describes his own beliefs about grace. He says:
It’s a remarkable thing, the idea that there’s some sort of hierarchy to sin . . . It’s something I can never figure out, the idea that sexual immorality is somehow much worse than, say, institutional greed. Somewhere in the back of the religious mind is this idea that we reap what we sow is missing the entire New Testament and the concept of grace completely.13
However, this idea that we reap what we sow is specifically taught in the New Testament. “Be not deceived; God is not mocked: for whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap. For he that soweth to his flesh shall of the flesh reap corruption; but he that soweth to the Spirit shall of the Spirit reap life everlasting. And let us not be weary in well doing: for in due season we shall reap, if we faint not” (Galatians 6:7-9). “For there are certain men crept in unawares, who were before of old ordained to this condemnation, ungodly men, turning the grace of our God into lasciviousness, and denying the only Lord God, and our Lord Jesus Christ” (Jude 1:4).
But I’d be in big trouble if Karma was going to finally be my judge. I’d be in deep s—. It doesn’t excuse my mistakes, but I’m holding out for Grace. I’m holding out that Jesus took my sins onto the Cross, because I know who I am, and I hope I don’t have to depend on my own religiosity.14
But Bono’s understanding of grace is not the life-transforming power of God unto salvation. Paul the Apostle says we have received grace for obedience of the faith. “We have received grace and apostleship, for obedience to the faith among all nations, for his name” (Romans 1:5). If we are under God’s grace, then sin has no more power over us (Romans 6:14). God’s grace equips us for good works: “And God is able to make all grace abound toward you; that ye, always having all sufficiency in all things, may abound to every good work” (2 Corinthians 9:8).
Bono on Judgment
Bono promotes his agenda to end extreme poverty with biblical ignorance and/or Bible twisting. For instance, he says:
There are 2,103 verses of Scripture pertaining to the poor. Jesus Christ only speaks of judgment once. It is not all about the things that the church bangs on about. It is not about sexual immorality, and it is not about megalomania, or vanity. It is about the poor. “I was naked and you clothed me. I was a stranger and you let me in.” This is at the heart of the gospel.15
Does Jesus only speak about judgment once? Certainly Jesus and the apostles instructed us to remember the poor, but Jesus makes several statements about judgment and the Judgment. This judgment has much to do with people’s faith and obedience toward God, whether they were righteous or wicked (see Matthew 5:22; 12:36-37; 13:40-43,49,50).
Bono says it’s not about sexual immorality, but Jesus specifically addresses the sexually immoral in reference to judgment saying, “But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars, shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone: which is the second death” (Revelation 21:8). Jesus also mentioned how fire and brimstone rained down upon the sexually corrupt city of Sodom (Luke 17:28-29). Again, Jesus speaks of judgment in relation to sexual sin when He warned the church of Thyatira saying, “Notwithstanding I have a few things against thee, because thou sufferest that woman Jezebel, which calleth herself a prophetess, to teach and to seduce my servants to commit fornication, and to eat things sacrificed unto idols” (Revelation 2:20). The book of Revelation continues to link sexual immorality to God’s judgment and wrath: “Neither repented they of their murders, nor of their sorceries, nor of their fornication, nor of their thefts” (Revelation 9:21); “Blessed are they that do his commandments, that they may have right to the tree of life, and may enter in through the gates into the city. For without are dogs, and sorcerers, and whoremongers, and murderers, and idolaters, and whosoever loveth and maketh a lie” (Revelation 22:14-15).
Postmodern Pop-Christian Superman
One Christian Post article contains an interview with Michael Gerson, former top aide and former speech writer to President George W. Bush. We read:
Across the nation, young evangelicals are naming Rick Warren or Bono as their role model for social engagement, rather than a Christian Right leader, says Michael Gerson, senior research fellow in the Center on Faith & International Affairs at the Institute for Global Engagement.
Warren, pastor of Saddleback Church in Lake Forrest, Calif., is known for mobilizing evangelical churches in the battle against HIV/AID in Africa, while U2 frontman Bono is one of the world’s leading anti-poverty activists.16
The most significant leaders within the popular megachurch movement, including Rick Warren, all idolize Bono as some sort of Christian Superman. Senior pastor of Willow Creek Community Church, Bill Hybels, hosted the 2009 annual Leadership Summit. Among the 17 speakers that appeared, U2 lead singer Bono was interviewed via satellite. In an article titled “What Bono Taught Me About Fighting Poverty”, Bill Hybels wrote:
Faith leaders the world over expected this day would come. What we didn’t expect was that it would take an Irish rock star to demand the dawn.
As leaders, there are so many things we must get better at: casting vision, building teams, solving problems, enforcing values, and building the next generation of leaders. But if we excel in those areas and still neglect to use our leadership octane to address God’s clear mandate to serve the poor, what have we really gained?
Since Bono’s clarion call three years ago, well-resourced churches have banded together to take a bite out of poverty, pouring vast amounts of resources into building orphanages, clinics, schools, and sports fields through partnerships with underresourced churches around the globe. Not that the ultimate judge comes in the form of a leather-clad superstar in shades, but still it was gratifying to hear Bono’s assessment of progress to date: “I knew [the church] was a sleeping giant, but I didn’t know the giant could run so fast.”17
CNN Money reported that Rick Warren has also “forged ties” with Bono, who arranged to make him official pastor of the 2004 Live 8 concert in Philadelphia.18 Below is a tweet from Warren recommending an article on Bono’s faith:
Both Bono and the Purpose Driven Pastor Rick Warren are compromising the Gospel of Jesus Christ in order to work together for debt-relief and AIDS programs. The peace and social justice that Bono advocates goes hand-in-hand with Rick Warren’s P.E.A.C.E. Plan. One New York Times article states:
But more liberals and evangelicals are realizing that you don’t have to convert people; sometimes you can just work with them. The world is suddenly crowded with people like Rick Warren and Bono who are trying to step out of the logic of the culture war so they can accomplish more in the poverty war.19
In the prologue of Sun Stand Still, seeker-driven pastor Steven Furtick recalls his experience at a U2 concert within the Time Warner Cable Arena where he would later preach to over ten thousand people. Furtick writes:
I can’t lie–it’s a pretty cool feeling to have Bono as your opening act. Even is his show was four and half years before. . .
I was about to preach the gospel from the same spot where I watched one of the biggest rock bands in the world play, “Where the Streets Have No Name.” . . .
This is how it feels to share the stage with Bono.20
Apologist Tim Keller, in his book The Reason for God, offers Bono’s comments on Jesus as the Son of God and says Bono “personally felt the radical implications of Jesus’s claims.”21
Richard Stearns, president of World Vision, hails Bono as a “prophetic voice, one of both passion and vision.” He says Bono, “may have done more to advance the cause of the poor in the last twenty-five years than anyone alive.”22
Philip Yancey speaks of seeing Bono hush 20,000 screaming fans to silence, then lead them in a psalm though he admits that some “who thundered in applause were praising only Bono.” Yancey says he prays for “the rock star Bono and his prophetic challenge to the church.” (Philip Yancey, Prayer, Does it Make Any Difference, Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2006, pp. 22, 274)
In an Emergent book called Get Up Off Your Knees, several contributing authors, including Eugene Peterson, author of The Message Bible translation, praise Bono and U2 as a prophetic voice. One contributor, Brian Walsh, believes U2 lyrics should be taught in seminaries and that U2 concerts demonstrate how worship should be done in a postmodern Emerging culture. In fact, Calvin College offered a class which analyzed U2′s influence on Christians.23 Contributor to the book, Brian Walsh states further:
Why isn’t the U2 catalog integral to the curricula of theological seminaries around the world? Why aren’t there courses on biblical interpretation where Bono’s lyrics are set side by side with biblical texts and their commentators? Why don’t liturgists study concert footage to see how worship really happens in a postmodern world?” (Angela Pancella. “Prayer, Prophecy, and Pop Culture – The Hallelujah Mix.” January 21, 2004)
Following the book’s release, Christianity Today idolized Bono in an article entitled “The Legend of Bono Vox, Lessons Learned in the Church of U2.” In the book, Bono is likened to John the Baptist. It states:
“If they do not explicitly proclaim the Kingdom, they certainly prepare the way for that proclamation in much the same way that John the Baptist prepared for the kerygma of Jesus. . .
“A voice crying in the wilderness not unlike that of John the Baptist we’ve been hearing throughout the Advent season.”24
Emergent Church leader Rob Bell says:
I remember the first time I was truly in awe of God. I was caught up the first time in my life in something so massive and loving and transcendent and…true. Something I was sure could be trusted. I specifically remember thinking the universe was safe, in spite of all the horrible, tragic things in the world. I remember being overwhelmed with the word true. Underneath it all life is somehow…good…and I was sixteen and at a U2 concert. The Joshua Tree tour. When they started with the song “Where the Streets Have No Name.” I thought I was going to spontaneously combust with joy. This was real. This mattered. Whatever it was, I wanted more.25
Doug Pagitt speaks favorably of Bono’s ecumenical COEXIST message saying:
Through an email I read an article on the Relevant website of one persons experience at a concert. I can’t find the article on the website, but I read it in the email. It is called “How to Dismantle an Idolized Bono”. She was disturbed by Bono’s call to Coexist (which is as much a marketing effort of a line of products as anything else, it seems to me). But the articles author raises concerns about Bono not being what she thought because of his call for “oneness” and his use of the Coexist logo which included the Crescent Moon, Star of David, and Cross. The article makes statements that made we groan aloud, and yell in frustration a couple of times. It drove me to Bono’s side, to come to his defense, to join the Coexist crowd. So, here’s to you my man Bono.26
There are many examples of Emergents quoting Bono as if he were a theologian. For instance, in the book Listening to Beliefs of Emerging Churches: Five Perspectives by Robert Webber and Mark Driscoll, we read:
Bono of the band U2, in a Rolling Stone interview, stated that he sees the Bible as what “sustains” him. He also called the Bible an “anchor” and a “plumb line.” I like Bono’s anchor analogy. When we are in a boat that is anchored, we have freedom to drift around, but there is a limit to the drifting.27
On Emergent spokesperson Brian McLaren’s website, one of his readers poses the question, “Why Bother With Church at All?” to which McLaren posted an answer. It is interesting in the reader’s post that they praise Bono for his version of Christianity, going to the length of proclaiming Bono as the “leader” of the Emergent Church. They write:
I think of Bono of U2, who has for years lamented the irrelevance of organized religion and yet conducts praise and worship services for 25,000 people all the while creating a commercial and culturally viable perch from which he can model a compelling vision of a social gospel. This guy is the leader of the “emergent church” movement… not a bunch of disatisfied ex-Jesus movement pastors fawning after a book deal to tell the church world how to do it better.28
In Brian McLaren and Tony Campolo’s book Adventures in Missing the Point, Campolo devotes much time in his “Kingdom of God” chapter to praising Bono. He writes, “U2′s lead singer Bono is using his wealth and celebrity status to do just that: increase the kingdom of God in the here and now.”29 Campolo elaborates on Bono’s good works of going to Ethiopia and performing concerts to aid in famine and work in orphanages. Campolo says of Bono:
He now works fiercely to change the policies of governments and of organizations like the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund . . . Politicians with views as diverse as Bill Clinton and Jesse Helms have taken Bono seriously and joined him in successful efforts to reduce Third World debts. . . However unlikely you think it is for a rock star to be an instrument of God, Bono has the marks of one.30
An article from Bangor Daily News neatly sums it up well. In Bangor Seminary’s 2012 convocation called “Evolving World, Emerging Church,” Rev. Steven Lewis called it “humanitarian spirituality” and said, “Salvation in the 21st century is being a good human being,” and pointed to rock star Bono, celebrities Angelina Jolie and Brad Pitt.31
On the Emergent Village website, Bono is labeled as a “Prophetic Preacher.” His speech at the National Prayer Breakfast on February 2, 2006 was called “his best sermon yet” by Emergent Village.32 So significant is Bono’s influence on the Emerging Church that Phil Johnson of Grace to You made this stunning statement:
This may help you more than anything I have said so far to understand the flavor of the “emerging church movement”: Bono—the Irish rocker and politico of U2 fame—seems to be the unofficial icon of the movement. If you’ve been tuned into pop-culture at any time over the past two decades and know anything about Bono, that might help you to grasp something about the look and feel of the movement. (My favorite fact about Bono is that he named one of his sons “Elijah Bob Patricus Guggi-Q.”)
Anyway, Emergent types seem to quote Bono all the time. I would say that he sometimes seems to be the chief theologian of the “emerging church movement.”33
Bono the World Leader
As stated above, many young evangelicals are naming Bono and Rick Warren as their role models. It is interesting that both the Purpose Driven pastor Rick Warren and the U2 superstar Bono are deeply involved in the three different sectors of society: the public sector of governments, the private sector of businesses, and the social sector of community organizations, including faith-based organizations. Forbes reported:
This is, after all, a man [Rick Warren] who networks with the leaders of the free world, Presidents and presidential hopefuls and assorted dignitaries, while helping combat AIDS through personal relationships with rock music superstars such as Bono.34
Bono’s star status has enabled him to secure meetings with a variety of influential public figures including Tony Blair, George Bush, Barak Obama, Dmitry Medvedev, Pope John Paul II and Pope Benedict XVI. Not only is Bono being praised in the religious realm, but many politicians look to Bono as a leader as well. World Bank President Jim Yong Kim recently turned to Bono to talk about solutions and actions needed to end extreme poverty. The political aspects of Bono’s agenda cannot be denied. Even today’s celebrities, politicians, and presidents turn to Bono as the “world leader” that can “save the world.” In an autobiography, Tony Blair writes:
[Bono] could have been a president or prime minister standing on his head. He had an absolutely natural gift for politicking, was great with people, very smart and an inspirational speaker… motivated by an abundant desire to keep on improving, never really content or relaxed.”35
Bono, as the ultimate global citizen and Superman, has profound influence in the business, government and religious sectors of society. He shrouds his agenda as the Kingdom of God. Campolo writes:
Bono is using his wealth and celebrity status to do just that: increase the kingdom of God in the here and now. Even back in 1982 he was part of the Live Aid and Band-Aid concerts, whose earnings helped Ethiopians suffering through famine…
He now works fiercely to change the policies of governments and of organizations like the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund—in order that funding for public health, education, and essential social services will increase rather than decrease.36
Bono’s ONE campaign has become the “Third Way” which all political parties can celebrate as an issue bigger than democrats and republicans alike. Both politicians and celebrities join Bono’s anti-Gospel, social justice ONE campaign.
It is a fearful thing to be highly regarded by not only pop-Christian leaders, but also top celbrities and politicains. Jesus said, “Woe unto you, when all men shall speak well of you! For so did their fathers to the false prophets” (Luke 6:26). How is it that a professing Christian like Bono can be on top of the world? The world hears and receives its own. Jesus said, “If ye were of the world, the world would love his own: but because ye are not of the world, but I have chosen you out of the world, therefore the world hateth you” (John 15:19). “I have given them thy word; and the world hath hated them, because they are not of the world, even as I am not of the world” (John 17:14). “They are of the world: therefore speak they of the world, and the world heareth them” (1 John 4:5). “And we know that we are of God, and the whole world lieth in wickedness” (1 John 5:19).
Bono is embraced and given the upper-hand in both religious and political spheres of influence. Many are following Bono in social justice but throwing the Gospel out the window. Bono’s hip Christianity will inspire many Christians to embrace ecumenism and apostasy in the cloak of philanthropy. This is a politicized social Gospel which is contrary to the doctrine of Christ.
1 Joe Kovacas, “U2′s Bono: Yes, Jesus is the Son of God,” WorldNet Daily, June 24, 2013,
Read more at: http://www.wnd.com/2013/06/u2s-bono-jesus-is-the-son-of-god/#vy94qM4lbsP7rlMw.99
2 “Bono: Husband, Father, Advocate,” Focus On The Family, June 25, 2013
3 Jim Daly, “Why Orthodox Christians Should Appreciate an Unorthodox Bono,” Daily Focus, June 25, 2013
4 Adam Block. “Bono Bites Back,” Mother Jones Magazine, May 1, 1989
6 “Busted: Facebook Pictures Show Married U2 Singer Bono’s Rendezvous With Sexy Teens” Fox News, October 27, 2008
7 “U2′s Bono & Edge: F***ing Brilliant,” YouTube video posted by Bibien, June 9, 2007
8 “Bono Bites Back at Capitalists, Communists, And Critics.” Mother Jones Magazine, p. 35, May 1989
9 “U2 Bono Co-Exist New York MSG.” YouTube. Video posted by “damopants,” June 27, 2007
10 “U2′s Bono Speaks at GU Global Social Enterprise Event,” YouTube video posted by “Georgetown University,” November 13, 2012
11 Michka Assayas, Bono on Bono (New York, NY: Penguin Books, 2005), p. 201
12 “Noel Gallagher – HotPress – 10th October 2001.” Oasis Interviews Archive.
13 Andy Argyrakis. “Bono’s quest to save the world continues.” Relevant Magazine.
14 “Bono Interview: Grace Over Karma, The Poached Egg, August 27, 2010
15 Douglas Hicks, Global Neighbors: Christian faith and moral obligation in today’s economy (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2008), p. 51
16 Michelle A. Vu, “Evangelical Movement at ‘Head-Snapping’ Moment Says Scholar,” Christian Post, October 11, 2009
17 Bill Hybels, “Bill Hybels: “What Bono Taught Me About Fighting Poverty.” US News, August 19, 2009
18 Marc Gunther, “Will Success Spoil Rick Warren.” CNN Money, October 31, 2005
19 David Brooks. “A Natural Alliance.” The New York Times, May 26, 2005
20 Steven Furtick, Sun Stand Still (Colorado Springs, CO: Multnomah Books, 2010), pp. 1, 2
21 Tim Keller, The Reason For God (New York, NY: Dutton, 2008), pp. 229-231
22 Richard Stearns, The Hole in Our Gospel (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 2009), pp. 104, 105
23 Charles Honey, “Calvin College on U2,” Christianity Today, February 23, 2005
24 Whiteley, Raewynne & Maynard, Beth, Get Up Off Your Knees (Cambridge, MA, 2003. pp. xi, xii, 23
25 Rob Bell, Velvet Elvis (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2005), p. 72
26 Doug Pagitt, “Bono My Man,” Pagitt Blog, December, 2005
27 Mark Driscoll and Robert Webber, Listening to Beliefs of Emerging Churches: Five Perspectives (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2007), p. 97
28 Anonymous comment on “Why Bother With Church At All.” Brianmclaren.net
29 Tony Campolo and Brian McLaren, Adventures in Missing the Point (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2003), p. 54
31 Judy Harrison, “Worshippers dance in the aisles as spirit fills Bangor seminary’s Convocation.” Bangor Daily News, January 12, 2012
32 Emergent Village, http://www.emergentvillage.com/cohorts-locations/emergent-ct
33 Phil Johnson, “Introducing the ECM.” Pulpit Magazine, December 4, 2006
34 “Pastor Rick Warren Is Well Prepared For A Purpose Driven Retirement,” Forbes, March 21, 2013
35 Blair: “Bono Has World Leader Potential.” WENN, September 2, 2010
36 Tony Campolo, Adventures in Missing the Point (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2003), p. 50